Disinfecting & Oxidizing

 Heger Diamond Electrodes generate:

H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide)

an unstable compound H2O2 used especially as an oxidizing and bleaching agent, an antiseptic

Peroxodisulfate

refers to ions or compounds containing the anions SO2−5 or S2O2−8. The anion SO2−5 contains one peroxide group per sulfur center, whereas in S2O2−8, the peroxide group bridges the sulfur atoms. In both cases, sulfur adopts the normal tetrahedral geometry typical for the S(VI) oxidation state. These salts are strong oxidizers

Ozone O3

a triatomic very reactive form of oxygen that is a bluish irritating gas of pungent odor, that is a major air pollutant in the lower atmosphere but a beneficial component of the upper atmosphere, and that is used for oxidizing, bleaching, disinfecting, and deodorizing

Hydroxyl Radicals

the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH). Hydroxyl radicals are highly reactive (easily becoming hydroxyl groups) and consequently short-lived; however, they form an important part of radical chemistry. The hydroxyl radical is often referred to as the “detergent” of the troposphere because it reacts with many pollutants, decomposing them through “cracking”, often acting as the first step to their removal.

Hydroxyl radicals play a key role in the oxidative destruction of organic pollutants using a series of methodologies collectively known as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The destruction of pollutants in AOPs is based on the non-selective reaction of hydroxyl radicals on organic compounds. It is highly effective against a series of pollutants including pesticides, pharmaceutical compounds, dyes, etc.

this allows you to :

  • oxidize any organic compound (AOPs)

  • control microbiological populations in water systems, wash tanks, wet separators, air conditioning systems etc.

  • save water (zero discharge)

  • clean without chemicals

  • improve worker safety

  • increase profitability

  • be environmentally sustainable

 

Killing and removal of germs in water with Diamond Electrodes (Escherichia Coli)

The hydroxyl radical can damage virtually all types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, nucleic acids (mutations), lipids (lipid peroxidation), and amino acids (e.g. conversion of Phe to m-Tyrosine and o-Tyrosine). The hydroxyl radical has a very short in vivo half-life of approximately 10−9  seconds and a high reactivity. This makes it a very dangerous compound to any organism. (see washing citrus)

Oxidative reactions – Advanced Oxidation Process (AOPs)

Oxidative reactions are the most effective way of degrading and eliminating all kinds of pollutants and waste chemicals – both in air and water. It is also one of the basic tools in a variety of chemical reactions and processes.

In general, oxidation can be achieved by using compounds which have higher oxidation potentials (Eo) than that of oxygen (1.23 V).  The difference of the oxidation potential over the potential of oxygen is a measure of the oxidative capability of an oxidizing agent. – the higher the oxidation potential, the stronger the oxidative capability.

Amongst the typical anti-pollutants, the following have the best oxidative efficiency:

–          hydroxyl radical          –   Eo =   2.28 V
–          ozone                            –   Eo =   2.07 V
–          hydrogen peroxide     –   Eo =   1.78 V

This comparison shows that hydroxyl radicals have unmatched capability of oxidative treatment.  The only oxidant with even higher potential is fluorine, with its oxidation potential of Eo =   2.85 V, while chlorine (the common but toxic oxidant and disinfectant) has the oxidation potential of only  1.49 V.

Advanced oxidation process (AOP) is based on techniques by generating highly reactive species (especially the hydroxyl radical OH.) that are able to react with a range of compounds, even with chemicals that are otherwise very difficult to degrade.  These species is so reactive because one of its electrons is unpaired.  They are however extremely short-lived and need to be formed in situ (Heger Diamond Electrolyzer)  in the close proximity of the contaminant molecules. The degradation reaction initiated by the radicals proceeds until thermodynamically stable oxidation products are formed, which results in mineralization, i.e. the full degradation of the pollutants. The end products of complete oxidation (mineralization) of organic compounds are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).

Oxidizing with Heger Diamond Electrodes

Hair dye was decomposed using our Diamond Electrodes to not only remove the color but all the chemistry behind it. Leaving only water !